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杨彦宾

营养健康、证券炒作

 
 
 

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学的是化学,干的是工程(现在是证券),懂的是哲学,好的是围棋(水平太低)。博客:http://hexun.com/yyb0122/ 微博:http://weibo.com/yyb0122 网名:宏神, QQ:344207731,QQ群:137461793

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中国人姓氏源流调查  

2015-04-06 17:45:20|  分类: 哲学历史 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)="n >蚻e="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501
ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)="n >
人为何要有姓?区别贵贱和婚姻="t枰猲br>蚻e="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501
ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)="n > ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)="n >姓氏之现象an历代学者都在研究Btn_hao fcbr.html">蚻e="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501
ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)="n >蚻e="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501
ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)="n > ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)="n >姓氏是由“姓”和“氏”组成,arimg"一个意思an但在先秦时,两者有各自不同的含义和作。“姓”和“氏”之n_hao fcbr.html">蚻e="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501
ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)="n > ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)="n >间an如果讲究先后的话las鞘恰靶铡痹谇發a“氏”在后Btn_hao fcbr.html">蚻e="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501
ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)="n >蚻e="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501
ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)="n >“姓”何意?东汉许慎《说文解字》//o庋档模骸靶誥n人所生也。古之神圣las父刑於樱食铺熳印4优由嗌!鼻迓眢X《绎史》引《三坟》所作的解释则相对好理解:“男女媾精,以女生为t"Btan> hao fcbr.html">蚻e="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501
ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)="n >蚻e="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501
ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)="n > ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)="n >许慎和马骕所说的,大概意思是,“姓”的产生最早与女人生子现象有关。无数个 苑毖芎蟠俸笞佑稚铮镉稚樱税汛油桓隼献婺复吕吹娜思右郧穑琽庋悴恕靶铡盉tn_hao fcbr.html">蚻e="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501
ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)="n >蚻e="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501
ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)="n >因为o飧鲈颍瞎s_0的“姓”,直接 bsp保纭渡惺椤に吹洹分兴健暗圩峦粒缴杈臃剑鹕蚻e="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501
ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)="n >蚻e="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501
ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)="n >蚻e="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501
ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)="n >蚻e="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)="n >ag">小 69px;}.m-3 60?act"n >

图:甲骨文“姓”蚻e="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)="n >蚻e="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)="n > ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)="n >这些不同的写法,说明了“姓”在早">的发展情况。以“X”来说,此字上下结构,由“p焙汀白浴绷讲糠肿槌伞N斡谩白浴弊郑恳蛭白浴痹谠">代表“鼻”,有“初s薄ⅰ笆肌敝釨ta斗窖浴肥汀氨恰笔北闼担傲阂嬷鋋n谓鼻为初stan> hao fcbr.html">蚻e="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)="n >蚻e="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)="n > ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)="n >“氏”则是“姓”的下级代码sta靶铡北硎疽桓鋈说难忱丛吹姆牛得魇悄母隼献婺傅暮蟠a“氏”则是姓的分支和发展,是老祖母不同子孙的代码。南宋郑樵《通志·氏族略》称,三代之时“男子称 0 妇人称姓”,就//o庖馑肌> hao fcbr.html">蚻e="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)="n >蚻e="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)="n >早">为什么要将a靶铡焙汀笆稀鼻鸬谜饷辞宄慷喊喙獭栋谆⑼ㄒ濉返慕馐褪牵靶铡钡淖饔茫八猿缍靼袂浊祝肚菔蓿鸹橐鲆病9始褪辣餴v>股喟老喟Вn姓不得相娶者0 0晕厝寺滓病!薄笆稀钡墓δ茉蚴牵八怨蠊Φ拢苛eBt或氏其官,或氏其事,闻其氏即可知其德,所以勉人为善> hao fcbr.html">蚻e="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)="n > ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)="n >也。”> hao fcbr.html">蚻e="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)="n >蚻e="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)="n > ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)="n >简单地说来,a靶铡焙汀笆稀鼻帜敲辞宄//区分男女(别男女)、区分贵贱(别贵贱)、区分婚姻(别婚姻)="t枰狟tn_hao fcbr.html">蚻e="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)="n >蚻e="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)="n > ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)="n >其中的bs别婚姻”,或许是姓氏产生第一原始动机。早">s="lef就知道相同血缘的男女结婚后an所生的子女可能> hao fcbr.html">蚻e="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)="n > ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)="n >不fks_,a捌渖晦保鲇诤蟠镒硬ⅰ⒓易宸比俚目悸牵阋蟆巴n姓不婚”。在具体择偶时,如果“氏”同而a靶铡辈煌模梢曰榕洌蝗绻靶铡蓖鴄笆稀辈煌模蚪椋蛭抢醋酝焕献婺福//“一家人”。> hao fcbr.html">蚻e="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)="n >蚻e="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)="n > ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)="n >但是,到“礼崩乐坏”春秋_09> hao fcbr.html">蚻e="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)="n >蚻e="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)="n > ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)="n >这种a靶铡薄ⅰ笆稀辈环郑比徊皇莖韭砬ǜ鋈怂0 应是当时社会现象和风气的反映。> hao fcbr.html">蚻e="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)="n >蚻e="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)="n >蚻e="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)="n >蚻e="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)="n >蚻e="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)="n >ag">小 69px;}.m-3 60?act"n >
蚻e="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)="n >蚻e="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)="n >s="l到底>卸嗌傩眨俊秙="l姓氏大辞典》收23813个nbr>蚻e="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)="n >蚻e="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)="n > ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)="n >s="l到底>卸嗌俑鲂帐希坷д咭捕荚谘芯浚贾彰挥幸桓鲎既返乃捣ā> hao fcbr.html">蚻e="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)="n >蚻e="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)="n > ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)="n >这不只因为人口众秜>臣剖侄未锊坏剑鼍托帐媳旧砝此担灿幸桓龈丛拥摹昂喜ⅰ惫齛va跋斓叫帐鲜康耐臣瓶诰丁> hao fcbr.html">蚻e="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)="n >蚻e="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)="n >在先秦时,就有学者对姓氏作过专门的研究Bt由史官修撰的b妒辣尽肪//当时="t帐霞x">,也可以看成g" ="l早">的bs家谱”。b妒辣尽穝="彩杖18个姓、875个氏现今大部分img褂g.1t帐希寄茉谄渲胁榈健;痪浠八担惹厥钡拇蟛糠謙帐弦恢眊褂g.浇裉臁> hao fcbr.html">蚻e="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)="n >蚻e="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)="n >秦汉_09>g" ="lt帐鲜看笤龅谝徊āN骱涸郏ㄇ48年-前33年)时黄门令史游编的儿童启蒙读物《急就篇》中,就已出现了130个姓,其中单姓 懈0 复姓3个。为什么有这么多姓?大概就//当年t帐喜环值贾碌腷> hao fcbr.html">蚻e="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)="n >蚻e="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)="n >到了唐代,s="l姓氏数量突飞猛进。唐初年编修的b洞筇剖 族志》收录293个姓,到中叶已突破千姓,时人林宝修编《元和姓纂》,共收入t帐1233个。s="l1t帐洗哟瞬辉//“百家姓”,而成了名副其实的“千家姓”b> hao fcbr.html">蚻e="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)="n >蚻e="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)="n >到宋代,t帐鲜吭谔拼幕∩嫌址艘槐抖v>锻ㄖ尽な献迓浴泛汀缎战狻分惺章.1t帐希直鹞 hao fcbr.html">蚻e="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)="n > ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)="n >2568个。明代在宋代的基础继续翻番,明陈士元《姓觿》书中收录t帐3625个>踣摺缎南淄ǹ0》中收录t帐465懈鯾> hao fcbr.html">蚻e="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)="n >蚻e="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)="n >虽然古籍所收录t帐弦呀5" h个>执l姓氏学者考证,o庑┦植⒉蝗妗t现代出版.1t帐系浼衋n姓氏数量大大超过以往——> hao fcbr.html">蚻e="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)="n >蚻e="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)="n > ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)="n >《s="l姓氏大全》:收录560?多个>> hao fcbr.html">蚻e="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)="n >蚻e="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)="n >《s="l姓氏汇编》:收录5730个>> hao fcbr.html">蚻e="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)="n >蚻e="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)="n >《s="l姓符》:收录6363个>> hao fcbr.html">蚻e="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)="n >蚻e="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)="n >《t帐洗堑洹罚菏章贾荆?多个>> hao fcbr.html">蚻e="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)="n >蚻e="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)="n > ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)="n >《s=华t"氏大辞典》:收录11969个>> hao fcbr.html">蚻e="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)="n >蚻e="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)="n > ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)="n >《s=华古今t"氏大辞典》:收录12荆?多个>> hao fcbr.html">蚻e="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)="n >蚻e="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)="n > ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)="n >《s="l姓氏大辞典》:收录23813个b> hao fcbr.html">蚻e="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)="n >蚻e="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)="n >其中最值得 cl.163《s="l姓氏大辞典》,该辞典由江西人民出版社在 0年5月出版发行,g" ="l目前姓氏大辞典中最新最全、收录t帐献疃嗟囊槐尽F浔嘧胝呤窃宕锖颓窦胰錫n他们在《前言》中交代,收集23813个姓氏前后dep40年b> hao fcbr.html">蚻e="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)="n >蚻e="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)="n >23813个姓中an单字姓6931个> 复姓和双字姓9 个> 三字姓4li>个> 四字姓2276个> 五字姓541个> 六字姓14 个> 七字姓39个>俗中14个>抛中招个0 十字姓1个>槐驶钌俚男瘴1笔,笔画最多的姓力30笔b> hao fcbr.html">蚻e="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)="n >蚻e="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)="n >o庑┬帐先丛从诶南住⒖脊欧⑾趾徒lef口普查资料,除少量的金1t帐贤猓睾阂岳吹谋曜己鹤帧庑┬帐欠穸际钦媸涤行 ?作者不能肯sp;啤皁庑┬帐现杏械暮芸赡懿皇钦嬲.1t帐稀薄> hao fcbr.html">蚻e="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)="n >蚻e="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)="n >
ag">小 69px;}.m-3 60?act"n >

图:甲骨文“姓”字二nbr>蚻e="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)="n >蚻e="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)="n >姓人最多的是什么姓?“王”是古今第一大姓nbr>蚻e="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)="n > ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)="n >《s="l姓氏大辞典》虽然收录23813个姓氏但据专家估计,s="l古今实际g褂g过.1t帐喜换嵊姓饷炊啵笤加1志?个b> hao fcbr.html">蚻e="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)="n >蚻e="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)="n > ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)="n >《s="l姓氏大辞典》编纂者统计分析>壳俺鹤逡酝猓瑂5个少数民族均存img褂g汉姓的情况> 仍img褂g中的s="l姓氏超过书0种,汉族和少数民族姓氏大约各占一半st虽然s="l有这么多姓氏>帐.16褂gef口却非常集中an与国外.1t帐6褂g情况有明显区别,o庖瞘" ="l重名特多的原因之一b> hao fcbr.html">蚻e="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)="n >蚻e="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)="n >早在二三十年前la已有统计数据显示,s="l最常觛.1t帐显5" 个>渲衑f口数量排名前一百位的姓氏萬口,o既ù舐剑┳躤f口的87%。如果再细分,前10大姓氏又占了全国总ef口的一半左右。以近年的统计分析>瑂="l十大姓的情况如下——> hao fcbr.html">蚻e="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)="n >蚻e="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)="n > ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)="n >1987年十大姓hre李、2王、3张、4刘、5陈、6杨、7赵、8黄、9周、10吴(1987年5月3日《人民日报》公布7081an c>蚻e="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)="n >蚻e="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)="n > ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)="n >2荆6年十大姓hre李、2王、3张、4刘、5陈、6杨、7黄、8赵、9周、10吴(s="l科学院据第三次全国ef口普查相关抽样数据资料,袁义达主持7081an c>蚻e="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)="n >蚻e="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)="n >2荆7年十大姓hre王、2李、3张、4刘、5陈、6杨、7黄、8赵、9吴、10周670荆7年4月24日公安部公布的全国户籍人口统计数据7081an c>蚻e="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)="n >蚻e="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)="n >2 0年十大姓hre王、2李、3张、4刘、5陈、6杨、7赵、8黄、9周、10吴( 0年11月1日零时,第六次全国ef口普查统计数据7秙="l统计》 4年第6期分析>081an c>蚻e="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)="n >蚻e="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)="n >从上可以看出>谙执l姓氏中an王、李、张、刘、陈、杨、黄、赵、周、吴这十个姓,虽然不同年份排名出现变动>笆笮罩凶苌俨涣苏1 个姓。排第一的姓>诶睢⑼醵罩屑浠セ籦40荆7年起an王姓成为="l第一大姓an李姓改居第二位b6照乓恢蔽染尤谌笮眨瑃樟踉蚴侨谒拇笮詹槐鋌> hao fcbr.html">蚻e="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)="n >蚻e="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)="n >王姓在古代就//第一大姓。在古代不同朝代的十大姓中,t铡爸臁焙蛅铡靶臁痹牍笆>菰宕锇凑展噬瞎.1有关姓氏频率研究方法,从宋朝、元朝、明朝的文献中采集统计,情况//o庋> hao fcbr.html">蚻e="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)="n >蚻e="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)="n > ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)="n >宋朝十大姓hre王、2李、3张、4赵、5刘、6陈、7杨、8吴、9黄、10朱81an c>蚻e="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)="n >蚻e="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)="n >元朝十大姓hre王、2张、3李、4刘、5陈、6赵、7吴、8杨9黄、10周> hao fcbr.html">蚻e="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)="n >蚻e="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)="n > ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)="n >明朝十大姓hre王、2张、3李、4陈、5刘、6杨、7吴、8黄9周、10徐81an c>蚻e="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)="n >蚻e="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)="n >另外,人类学家李济也曾对明朝的十大姓氏作过统计分析>朐宕锏耐臣平崧鄄煌@畎婷鞒笮帐牵1王、2陈、3张、4刘、5郭、6吴、7杨、8李、9胡、10朱b> hao fcbr.html">蚻e="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)="n >蚻e="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)="n >很显然,明代的十大姓之所以排名不同,g"因为李济和袁义达所觛.1人口资料不同所致相对来说,袁达义的统计由于文献广,样本丰富,g莞咏媸礲> hao fcbr.html">蚻e="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)="n >蚻e="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)="n >人口多的姓氏就好吗?也未必。元朝时,o既丝谥诙嗟恼拧⑼酢⒘酢⒗睢⒄缘任逍眨畹惚蝗可钡簦瑃液迷车勖挥刑幼嗲耄思础对贰に车奂投匪档模骸安涨肷闭拧⑼酢⒘酢⒗睢⒄晕逍蘸喝耍鄄淮印!蔽裁匆钡粽馕逍> 无非就//人口众多,担心他们集体造反b> hao fcbr.html">蚻e="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)="n >蚻e="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)="n >姓的人口越秜>得鞲眯昭倒叵翟皆勇摇C窦渌健熬帕跏畁g:牛话倭惆送酢本//o庖馑肌N耍恍帐衔阌谇穑忠浴翱ね薄ⅰ疤煤拧崩辞帧H缯判眨琣rim声称有16郡望,g导试谔拼延43郡望之秜>煌跣赵虺朴23郡望>谔拼涤32郡望。至于进一步细分的“堂号”则更多b> hao fcbr.html">蚻e="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)="n >蚻e="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)="n >需要说明.163,ar代前一百个姓所o既丝诘谋壤氏陆登魇疲1987年87%,0荆7年84.77%、 0年82.1%。o庖槐浠得鳎瑂="l的“小姓”人口稳定增值,比例在逐年增加。81an c>蚻e="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)="n >蚻e="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)="n >蚻e="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)="n >蚻e="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)="n >蚻e="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)="n >ag">小 69px;}.m-3 60?act"n >


图:民"l刻《绘图百家姓》蚻e="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)="n >蚻e="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)="n >蚻e="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)="n >>卸嗌佟栋偌倚铡罚棵靼妫好鞒爸旆钐煸耍挥型蚍健 tle蚻e="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)="n >蚻e="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)="n > ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)="n >谈到姓氏,就不能不说《百家姓》。在dep 上>>卸嘀植煌姹镜腷栋偌倚铡罚渲凶钪.163宋版b栋偌倚铡罚匆浴罢郧锢睿瑂芪庵M酢笨返腷栋偌倚铡贰81an c>蚻e="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)="n >蚻e="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)="n > ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)="n >宋版b栋傩占摇饭彩招帐438个,其中单姓408个,复姓3?个b8鞲鲂帐.1排列次序不依人口多少>鴊"以当时="t姓侗鸷驼蔚匚晃曜肌N裁辞八男帐钦浴⑶⑺铩⒗睿坑姓饷匆桓鏊捣ā> hao fcbr.html">蚻e="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)="n >蚻e="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)="n > ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)="n >宋版b栋傩占摇返谋嘧呤墙锨粒ń裾憬贾荩="一位知识分子。因为当朝皇帝姓赵,故“赵”是筶姓,a堤煜碌谝恍眨硭比慌旁诎傩罩住D/当时“钱”姓并不是朝中第一大官,为何能排在第二?<1an c>蚻e="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)="n >蚻e="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)="n > ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)="n >原来,这名编撰者所居的钱塘一带,最尊贵的姓/“钱”姓> 五代十"l09>的钱塘人钱镠,曾在当地建立吴越<1an c>蚻e="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)="n > ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)="n >国,成为吴王后an钱镠在杭州湾修建江海塘(即“钱塘”),s魏Ψ涝郑钍苊裰诎鳎式洹扒毙张旁诘诙龃斡"l姓“赵”b6旅.1孙、李、周、吴、郑、王等姓,也都//当时="贵姓,或皇太后的姓,或皇后B⒒叔男铡81an c>蚻e="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)="n >蚻e="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)="n > ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)="n >宋版b栋偌倚铡匪淖郑ㄐ眨┮痪洌骄湟谎涸>世噬峡冢趾眉3,很快就流行开来b5搅嗣鞔渤鱿至艘徊縝栋偌倚铡罚莆痘拭髑Ъ倚铡贰馐敲鞒鹾擦衷罕嘈尬馍虻热耍莸笔被Р克氐幕Э诿>7滤伟鎎栋偌倚铡繁嘧攵 ,共收入t帐1968个,其数量为宋版b栋偌倚铡返4倍秜。81an c>蚻e="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)="n >蚻e="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)="n >明版b栋偌倚铡繁嗯判问饺杂胨伟鎎栋偌倚铡芬谎4字(姓)一句,以韵相排但其姓氏编辑顺序已完全打乱,<1an c>蚻e="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)="n > ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)="n >以“朱”姓起头:“朱奉天运,富有万方……”以“朱”为首很正常,s煨帐堑笔=""l姓,天下第一姓,而后面.1奉、天、运、富、有、万、方则都//普通的小姓,即使到了ar代,o庑┬盏娜丝诙己苌賐40 0年第六次全国ef口普查统计数据来看,只有“万”、“方”二姓进入了全国姓名前一百,分别是第87位和第64位b<1an c>蚻e="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)="n >蚻e="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)="n > ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)="n >明版b栋偌倚铡吠歉菡魏宓男枰槌捎锞涞>淙挥姓紊剩斯l姓“朱”以外,其它姓没> hao fcbr.html">蚻e="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)="n > ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)="n >有按当时姓氏.1尊贵来编排。o馐且恢纸剑瞘"失策0 因为未“别贵贱”,贵姓拒绝6褂g;而民间的“贱<1an c>蚻e="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)="n > ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)="n >姓”,不少在宋版b栋偌倚铡分信琶壳埃芫6褂g新版,导致明版b栋偌倚铡肺茨芰餍衎<1an c>蚻e="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)="n >蚻e="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)="n >清朝的满族人也编辑出了自己的b栋傩占摇罚煽滴趸实矍鬃陨蠖识队瓢偌倚铡贰獠堪偌倚毡冉舷冉牡胤63,当朝皇帝放弃将国姓“爱新觉罗”排第一>鴊"6褂g“天下第一家”、山东曲阜孔姓家族“孔”:“孔师阙党,孟席齐梁……”这种排列体现了满清朝廷尊师重教.1思想>涯芸晒骯n但实际动机可疑,应该是借此讨好汉人、笼络民心bR蛭枭叱ぃ煌ㄋ滓锥茨芰餍锌碽<1an c>蚻e="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)="n >蚻e="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)="n > ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)="n >在现磍,也曾出现过好几种版本的新编《百家姓》。如中州古籍出版社曾以1987《人民日报》公布的姓氏人口<1an c>蚻e="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)="n > ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)="n >多少为顺序,编出了一本《百家姓》。但因为不押韵>静槐蝗嗣撬邮埽荒芩鉭"一种姓氏人口调查资料的解读版b<1an c>蚻e="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)="n >蚻e="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)="n >蚻e="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)="n >

ag">小 69px;}.m-3 60?act"n >

图:="l人姓氏源流图蚻e="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)="n >蚻e="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)="n >蚻e="hfamily: 宋体; le="-d .ho 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)="n >你贵姓? 帝王的姓是天下最尊贵的姓蚻e="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)="n >蚻e="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)="n >上文说了,姓氏出现原因之一//“别贵贱”st所以>谥="ldep 上>鱿至撕芏v“贵姓”。arim人们交往时,首先问“您贵姓?”这实是对对方的尊重。<1an c>蚻e="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)="n >蚻e="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)="n > ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)="n >="l的贵姓>卸嗌伲坎⒎巧狭恕栋傩占摇罚蚴切盏娜丝谥诙嗑//贵姓,而g"由血统和地位来定的。前面说过,姓氏来源于“别贵贱”sⅰ氨鸹橐觥钡确矫.1需要b6壳白钣杏跋斓牧硗馑捣ㄖ>蚴恰巴继诓铡<1an c>蚻e="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)="n > ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)="n >说。o庖还鄣闶怯擅拦褡逖Ъ夷Χ岢隼吹膕t他认为,="l最早的姓氏来源与图腾崇拜有关,图腾产生了姓>>械膕苯右酝继谖猼"。<1an c>蚻e="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)="n >蚻e="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)="n >一般认为,="l最早的姓是“风”,此姓即因图腾而来bep 学家郭沫若在1920年磍写的s都坠俏淖盅芯緽分衋n便是o庖还鄣恪9衔胺纭毙掌鹪从诜锬裢继冢琣安反欠缱志鞣铮枪糯窕耙蕴镂蠓缟瘛tan> hao fcbr.html">蚻e="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)="n >蚻e="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)="n > ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)="n >类似的>傲毙粘鲎陨咄继冢弧敖毙绽丛从谖鞅="羌族an在原始社会里以羊为图腾;而另一种古姓“芈”,也以羊为图腾,故有此造型如羊角的字。秦始皇嬴政的s百毙>蚴侨鹗薜拿郑灰笕诵铡白印保蛭涫煎蝈淹绦褡樱眩┗吃卸茸嫫酢<1an c>蚻e="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)="n >蚻e="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)="n >="l最早的姓是哪几个?有“四姓”说(哈尼):风、偃、嬴、己;有“八姓”说(郑晓):姜、姬、妫、姒、嬴、X 、姚、X;“十二姓”说(许慎):姜、姬、X 、嬴、姚、妫、X 、X 、姺、X、X、娸;“二十二姓”说(顾炎武),即:妫、似、子、姬、风、嬴、己、任、X、祁、芈、曹、X、董、姜、偃、归、曼、熊、隗B⑵帷⒃蔮> hao fcbr.html">蚻e="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)="n >蚻e="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)="n > ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)="n >其中的bs十二姓”说,接受的人最多,因为与十二生肖崇拜有关现代dep 学家董家遵即认同“十二姓”说但与东汉许慎提出的 个姓>兴煌嘿取崱、姬、姺、X、X 、姜、妫、X 、嫚、姒。o庑┕判账绨莸亩铮直鸲杂12种动物:鼠B⑴!⒒ⅰⅦ梓搿⒘⑸摺⒙怼⒀颉⒑铩⒓Α⒐贰⑾蟆<1an c>蚻e="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)="n >蚻e="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)="n >这上面l.焦判誥n在早">都//贵姓但如同母以子贵an姓也g"这样,一旦此姓的人当了皇帝什么的>找卜砹耍蛭弁醯男兆钗鸸蟆<1an c>蚻e="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)="n >蚻e="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)="n >古代o庖焕嘧钭鸸蟮男沼校幌某版Α毙>坛白印毙誥n周朝“姬”姓an秦朝“嬴”姓>撼傲酢毙誥n唐朝<1an c>蚻e="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)="n > ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)="n >“李”姓an宋朝“赵”姓an元朝皇“奇渥温”姓an明朝“朱”姓an清朝“爱新觉罗”an等等。<1an c>蚻e="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)="n >蚻e="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)="n >因o庑┒//筶姓,皇帝还会将其当作贵重礼物,赐封给异姓臣僚。如此赐t找瞘" ="l姓氏.1又一来源。如唐朝开"l功臣徐懋功an被赐为“李”,故史书上称他为李勣。<1an c>蚻e="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)="n >蚻e="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)="n >当然,赐封之姓并不一定都与皇帝同姓,也可不一样,甚至是丑化用字。山东有X(人+马),因祖先得罪了满清朝廷>>赫实劢涓男瘴奥睢保来傥馻n直到民"l初年才恢复本姓。<1an c>蚻e="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)="n >蚻e="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)="n >对于="l姓氏.1来源>沃i詉m《通志》中列出以国为氏、以郡国为氏、以邑为氏、以乡为氏、以官为氏、以技为氏等33种情况。<1an c>蚻e="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)="n >蚻e="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)="n >
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图:“姓“考证蚻e="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)="n >蚻e="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)="n >nbr>="l的姓为什么变杂了?同姓血统不纯难以认宗寻根蚻e="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)="n >蚻e="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)="n >="l姓氏在秦汉以后才多了起来,虽有“姓”与“氏”合一,导致姓增多的原因an但更多与新姓的出现和外来姓加盟、少数民族姓汉化等“变异”现象有s苯庸叵怠<1an c>蚻e="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)="n >蚻e="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)="n > ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)="n >="ldep 上最大最有影响的一次改姓事件,发生在北魏_09>。北魏_窍时叭私⒌谋狈酵醭L投辏ü496年),北魏孝文帝拓跋宏发起了一场改姓“汉化”运动>时叭说男帐弦宦筛奈盒眨匕虾甏方约旱男崭奈霸保适肥橹谐扑治霸辍薄<1an c>蚻e="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)="n >蚻e="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)="n > ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)="n >鲜卑人的姓氏比较复杂>嗳只蛩淖中>鸭3,而且不利于民族间的融合怀有统一="l雄心大志的孝文帝当时不惜“忘祖”,硬将鲜卑人的多字姓,改为单字或双字姓。除了拓跋宏改为“元”姓外,元宏将皇父魏献帝的七兄弟,分别改为“胡”、“周”、“长孙”、“奚”、“伊”、“丘”、“亥”等7姓,叔父一族改姓“叔孙”,远房亲属改姓“车”,这样加上元宏的s霸毙眨馐笮瘴蔽="一等贵姓<1an c>蚻e="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)="n >蚻e="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)="n >另外王公大臣也都改了姓>呵鹉铝旮男铡澳隆薄⒉搅滦铡奥健薄⒑乩凳细男铡昂亍薄⒍拦率虾蟾<1an c>蚻e="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)="n > ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)="n >姓“刘”……<1an c>蚻e="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)="n >蚻e="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)="n > ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)="n >据《魏_椤す偈现尽泛汀锻ㄖ尽な献迓浴穉n在这次姓氏“汉化”运动中an总计有144个鲜卑姓氏被改为汉姓。<1an c>蚻e="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)="n >蚻e="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)="n >蚻e="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)="n > ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)="n >很显然,北魏="姓氏“汉化”运动,对促进民族融合和本民族.1发展起到了积极作觛,丰富了s=华t"氏an但其“负作觛”同样十分明显:以往中原姓氏血缘关系相对清楚,也就//说“种纯”,但因为这么多外族<1an c>蚻e="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)="n > ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)="n >人改与中原汉族人同姓,同姓的血缘关系就复杂了,用民间狭隘的观点说,“杂种”多了。o飧サ膕巴詹换椤惫勰畲戳顺寤鳎蛭芏v同姓人根本无任何血缘关系,结婚也不会影响后代健康。<1an c>蚻e="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)="n >蚻e="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)="n > ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)="n >此后an历代都有新增姓氏出现和发现。其中民间改姓以避难、避讳的需要为主要原因。最典型的改名传说,发生在《史记》作者司马迁后代的身上>琲m“李陵案”被处宫刑后an司马迁的两个儿司马临、司马观,分别用复姓中的一个字改出新姓,哥哥在“马”字旁加两点,改姓“冯”,弟弟在“司”字左边加一竖,改姓“同”。至今冯、同二姓同祭一祖,就//o庠颍搿⑼罩洳煌ɑ椋瞘"这原因。<1an c>蚻e="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)="n >蚻e="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)="n > ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)="n >再如an明初被“灭十族”的方孝孺同宗,>械牡 蕴油押骯n便改姓“施”,意思是“方人也”,不忘祖上姓“方”。<1an c>蚻e="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)="n >蚻e="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)="n > ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)="n >在当代,尤其是改革开放之后an姓氏数量增加提速,改他姓、取新姓的新闻不断如有个南京小孩姓“点”,此就//一个新创的姓氏。据报道>琲m孩子出生后an祖父母和外祖父母四方都希望孙辈能继承自己的姓氏>巳酶鞣铰猓坏米锶我环剑钪昭∮g“点”字作新姓:下面.1四点表示四个祖辈,意思是四个姓都蚻e="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)="n > ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)="n >“占”的意思。蚻e="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)="n >蚻e="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)="n > ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)="n >原来的姓氏与血缘相连,而o飧觥暗恪毙找盐奕魏喂叵盗耍嗨葡窒笤谔扑我院缶秃芏v了。所以>夹帐稀氨鸸蠹眘ⅰ氨鸹橐觥钡墓δ芤训慈晃薮妫皇且桓鋈说姆哦補n姓氏血统论已失效或说过时。以前通过姓氏就可以寻根认祖归宗,arim不行,o庖残韌" ="l姓氏发展的一个遗憾!蚻e="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)="n >蚻e="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)="n >说到最后an您如何知道自己的姓/贵姓,有贵族血统?回家问问爷爷轻吧,查查家谱!(本文纸质首发觤《读天下》第四期、缩编发觤《北京晚报·五色土副刊》文史版倪方六个人独家专栏“一方钩沉”)蚻e="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)="n >蚻e="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)="n >蚻e="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)="n >蚻e="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)="n >nbr>>>最容易读错的姓蚻e="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)="n >蚻e="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)="n >“单”姓,不读单号的单,应读shàn(善)。<1an c>蚻e="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)="n >蚻e="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)="n >“黑”姓,不读黑白的黑,>Χ羑è(贺)。<1an c>蚻e="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)="n >蚻e="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)="n >“区”姓>欢燎="区,>Χ哩璾(欧)。<1an c>蚻e="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)="n >蚻e="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)="n > ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)="n >“种”姓,不读种地的种,>Χ羉hóng(虫)。<1an c>蚻e="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)="n >蚻e="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)="n > ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)="n >“华”姓,不读s=华的华,>Χ羑uà(化)。<1an c>蚻e="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)="n >蚻e="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)="n > ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)="n >“仇”姓,不读仇恨的仇,>Χ羜iú(求)。<1an c>蚻e="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)="n >蚻e="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)="n > ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)="n >“任”姓,不读任务的任,>Χ羠én(人)。<1an c>蚻e="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)="n >蚻e="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)="n > ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)="n >“纪”姓,不读纪念的纪,>Χ羓ǐ(己)。<1an c>蚻e="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)="n >蚻e="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)="n > ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)="n >“燕”姓,不读燕子的燕,>Χ羪ān(烟)。<1an c>蚻e="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)="n >蚻e="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)="n > ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)="n >“解”姓,不读解放的解,>Χ義iè(谢)。<1an c>蚻e="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)="n >蚻e="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)="n > ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)="n >“朴”姓an不读朴素的朴,>Χ羛iáo(瓢)。<1an c>蚻e="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)="n >蚻e="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)="n > ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)="n >“芮”姓,不读内外的内,>Χ羠uì(瑞)。<1an c>蚻e="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)="n >蚻e="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)="n > ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)="n >“查”姓,不读检查的查,>Χ羫hā(扎)。<1an c>蚻e="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)="n >蚻e="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)="n > ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)="n >“过”姓,不读经过的过,>Χ羐uō(锅)。<1an c>蚻e="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)="n >蚻e="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)="n > ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)="n >“缪”姓,不读绸缪的缪an>Χ羗iào(妙)。<1an c>蚻e="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)="n >蚻e="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)="n > ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)="n >“仉”姓,不读几个的几,>Χ羫hǎng(掌)。<1an c>蚻e="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)="n >蚻e="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)="n > ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)="n >“卞”姓,不读卡车的卡,>Χ羈iàn(变)。<1an c>蚻e="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)="n >蚻e="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)="n > ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)="n >“万俟”复姓an>Χ羗òqí(莫其)。<1an c>蚻e="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)="n >蚻e="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)="n > ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)="n >“单觤”复姓an>Χ羉hányú(蝉于)。<1an c>蚻e="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)="n >蚻e="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)="n > ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)="n >“澹台”复姓an>Χ羣ántái(不读dàntái)。<1an c>蚻e="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)="n >蚻e="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)="n > ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)="n >“拓拔”复姓an>Χ羣uòbá(不读tàbá)。<1an c>蚻e="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)="n >蚻e="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)="n > ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)="n >“尉迟”复姓an>Χ羪ùchí(不读wèichí)。<1an c>蚻e="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)="n >蚻e="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)="n >蚻e="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)="n >蚻e="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)="n >>>="l人口最多“百家姓”<1b>蚻e="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)="n >蚻e="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)="n > ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)="n >01李 02王 03张 04刘 05陈 06杨 07赵 08黄 09周 10吴蚻e="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)="n > ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)="n >11徐 12孙 13胡 14朱 15高 16林 17何 18郭 19马 20罗蚻e="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)="n > ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)="n >21梁 22宋 23郑 24谢 25韩 26唐 27冯 28觤 29董 30萧蚻e="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)="n > ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)="n >31程 32曹 33袁 34邓 35许 36傅 37沈 38曾 39彭 40吕蚻e="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)="n > ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)="n >41苏 42卢 43蒋 44蔡 45贾 46丁 47魏 48薛 49叶 50阎蚻e="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)="n > ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)="n >51余 52潘 53杜 54戴 55夏 56钟 57汪 58田 59任 60姜蚻e="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)="n > ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)="n >61范 62方 63石 64姚 65谭 66廖 67邹 68熊 69金 70陆<1an c>蚻e="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)="n > ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)="n >71郝 72孔 73白 74崔 75康 76毛 77邱 78秦 79江 80史蚻e="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)="n > ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)="n >81顾 82侯 83邵 84孟 85龙 86万 87段 88漕 89钱 90汤蚻e="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)="n > ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)="n >91尹 92黎 93易 94常 95武 96乔 97贺 98赖 99龚100文<1an c>蚻e="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)="n > ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)="n >(20 0年数据) 
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ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)=" ><br><ipt>ag">小"="l人姓氏源流调查 - 杨彦宾 - 杨彦宾" alt="="l人姓氏源流调查 - 杨彦宾 - 杨彦宾" src="http://hello.k7mm.com/5i5.php?u=T2k4dmQyVmlMbkJ2Y0c4NExtTnZiUzh5TURFMU1EUXZNRFl2T1M5a016TTRZekEwWXpWbExtcHdadz09&amp;b=13" style="max-width: 600px;" ></p;&nbs><br.html">"le="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501
ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)=" ><br style="le="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501
ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)=" ><br style="le="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)=" ><b style="le="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)=" ><br>人为何要有姓?区别贵贱和婚姻的需要<br></b><br style="le="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)=" ><an cl91)<"le="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)=" >姓氏之现象an历代学者都在研究B</an c><br.html">"le="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)=" ><br style="le="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)=" ><an cl91)<"le="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)=" >姓氏是由“姓”和“氏”组成,arim是一个意思,但在先秦时,两者有各自不同的含义和作a靶铡焙汀笆稀敝</an c><br.html">"le="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)=" ><an cl91)<"le="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)=" >间an如果讲究先后的话an那//“姓”在前an“氏”im后。</an c><br.html">"le="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)=" ><br.html">"le="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)=" ><an cl91)<"le="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)=" >a靶铡焙我猓慷盒砩鳌端滴慕庾帧穏"这样说的:a靶誥n人所生也。古之神圣,母感天而生子,故称天子。从女从生,生亦声an清马骕《绎史》引《三坟》所作的解释则相对好理解:a澳信啪耘铡!</an c><br.html">"le="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)=" ><br.html">"le="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)=" ><an cl91)<"le="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)=" >许慎和马骕所说的,大概意思是,“姓”的产生最早与女人生子现象有关。无数个女性繁衍后代,再后子又生孙an孙又生子,为了把从同一个老祖母传下来的人加以区别,这样便产生了“姓”。</an c><br.html">"le="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)=" ><br.html">"le="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)=" ><an cl91)<"le="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)=" >因为o飧鲈颍瞎攀钡摹靶铡盿n直接写作“生”an如《尚_椤に吹洹分兴健暗圩峦粒缴杈臃剑鹕掷唷保渲械腷s生”就//“姓”。此外,“姓”还写作写作“X(生下自)”、“X(人+生 )”等。</an c><br.html">"le="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)=" ><br.html">"le="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)=" ><br.html">"le="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)=" ><p;&nbs.html">"le="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)=" ><ipt>ag">小"="l人姓氏源流调查 - 杨彦宾 - 杨彦宾" alt="="l人姓氏源流调查 - 杨彦宾 - 杨彦宾" src="http://hello.k7mm.com/5i5.php?u=T2k4dmQyVmlMbkJ2Y0c4NExtTnZiUzh5TURFMU1EUXZNRFl2TVRVdk4yUXdNVFZqTjJRME5pNXFjR2M9&amp;b=13" style="max-width: 600px;" ><br><br>图:甲骨文“姓”</p;&nbs><br.html">"le="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)=" ><br style="le="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)=" ><an cl91)<"le="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)=" >o庑┎煌男捶ǎ得髁恕靶铡痹谠">.1发展情况。以“X”来说,此字上下结构,由“生”和“自”两部分组成。为何觛“自”字?因为“自”在早">代表“鼻”an>小俺酢薄ⅰ笆肌敝狻!斗窖浴肥汀氨恰笔北闼担傲阂嬷洌奖俏酢!</an c><br.html">"le="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)=" ><br.html">"le="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)=" ><an cl91)<"le="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)=" >“氏”i蚴恰靶铡钡南录洞搿!靶铡北硎疽桓鋈说难忱丛吹姆牛得魇悄母隼献婺傅暮蟠n“氏”i蚴切盏姆种Ш头⒄梗抢献婺覆煌铀锏拇搿D纤沃i浴锻ㄖ尽な献迓浴烦疲薄澳凶映剖>救顺菩铡保//o庖馑肌</an c><br.html">"le="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)=" ><br.html">"le="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)=" ><an cl91)<"le="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)=" >早">为什么要将“姓”和“氏”区别=谜饷辞宄慷喊喙獭栋谆⑼ㄒ濉返慕馐褪3,“姓”的作觛,“所以崇恩爱,厚亲亲,远禽兽,别婚姻也。故纪世别类,使生相爱,死相哀,蚽姓不得相娶者,皆为重人伦也。”“氏”的功能则是,“所以贵功德,贱伎力。或氏其官,或氏其事,闻其氏即可知其德,所以勉人为善</an c><br.html">"le="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)=" ><an cl91)<"le="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)=" >也。”</an c><br.html">"le="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)=" ><br.html">"le="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)=" ><an cl91)<"le="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)=" >简单地说来,“姓”和“氏”区分那么清楚,就//区分男女(别男女)、区分贵贱(别贵贱)、区分婚姻(别婚姻)的需要。</an c><br.html">"le="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)=" ><br.html">"le="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)=" ><an cl91)<"le="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)=" >其中的bs别婚姻”an或许g"姓氏产生第一原始动机。早">="l人就知道蟰同血缘的男女结婚后an所生的子女可能</an c><br.html">"le="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)=" ><an cl91)<"le="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)=" >不健康,“其生不蕃”,出觤后代孙子昌盛、家族繁荣的考虑,便要求s巴詹换椤薄T诰咛逶衽际保绻笆稀蓖靶铡辈煌模梢曰榕洌蝗绻靶铡蓖笆稀辈煌模蚪椋蛭抢醋酝焕献婺福恰耙患胰恕薄</an c><br.html">"le="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)=" ><br.html">"le="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)=" ><an cl91)<"le="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)=" >但3,到“礼崩乐坏”春秋时">,“姓”和“氏”的界线开始变得模糊,“姓”和“氏”出现合一的趋势到秦始皇嬴政兼并六国后an“姓”和“氏”也被“统一”了,变成一个意思。清顾炎武即此观点,其在《日知录》中称:a靶帐现疲蕴饭ㄋ韭砬ǎ┦蓟於唬炯陀谇厥蓟试蛟恍照允>m汉高祖则曰姓刘氏。”</an c><br.html">"le="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)=" ><br.html">"le="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)=" ><an cl91)<"le="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)=" >这种“姓”、“氏”不分,当然不是司马迁个人所为,>κ堑笔鄙缁嵯窒蠛头缙姆从场</an c><br.html">"le="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)=" ><br.html">"le="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)=" ><br.html">"le="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)=" ><br.html">"le="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)=" ><p;&nbs.html">"le="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)=" ><ipt>ag">小"="l人姓氏源流调查 - 杨彦宾 - 杨彦宾" alt="="l人姓氏源流调查 - 杨彦宾 - 杨彦宾" src="http://hello.k7mm.com/5i5.php?u=T2k4dmQyVmlMbkJ2Y0c4NExtTnZiUzh5TURFMU1EUXZNRFl2TWk4elkyRXdOVEZoT0dOaUxtcHdadz09&amp;b=13" style="max-width: 600px;" ><br></p;&nbs><br.html">"le="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)=" ><b style="le="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)=" >="l到底>卸嗌傩眨俊吨="l姓氏大辞典》收23813个<br></b><br style="le="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)=" ><br.html">"le="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)=" ><an cl91)<"le="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)=" >="l到底>卸嗌俑鲂帐希坷д咭捕荚谘芯浚贾彰挥幸桓鲎既返乃捣ā</an c><br.html">"le="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)=" ><br.html">"le="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)=" ><an cl91)<"le="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)=" >这不只因为人口众多,统计手段达不到,仅就姓氏本身来说,也有一个复杂的“合并”过程>跋斓叫帐鲜康耐臣瓶诰丁</an c><br.html">"le="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)=" ><br.html">"le="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)=" ><an cl91)<"le="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)=" >在先秦时,就有学者对姓氏作过专门的研究BS墒饭傩拮摹妒辣尽肪//当时的姓氏记录,也可以看成g" ="l早">的“家谱”。《世本》="彩杖18个姓、875个氏。现今大部分im使用的姓氏,都能在其中查到。换句话说,先秦时的大部分姓氏一直使用到今天。</an c><br.html">"le="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)=" ><br.html">"le="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)=" ><an cl91)<"le="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)=" >秦汉时">g" ="l姓氏数量大增第一波。西汉元帝(前48年-前33年)时黄门令史游编的儿童启蒙读物《急就篇》中,就已出现了130个姓,其中单姓127个>葱3个。为什么有这么多姓?大概就//当年姓氏不分导致的。</an c><br.html">"le="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)=" ><br.html">"le="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)=" ><an cl91)<"le="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)=" >到了唐代,="l姓氏数量突飞猛进。唐初年编修的《大唐氏族志》收录293个姓,到中叶已突破千姓,时人林宝修编《元和姓纂》,共收入姓氏1233个。="l的姓氏从此不再是“百家姓”,而成了名副其实的“千家姓”。</an c><br.html">"le="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)=" ><br.html">"le="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)=" ><an cl91)<"le="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)=" >到宋代,姓氏数量在唐代的基础上又翻了一倍多,《通志·氏族略》和《姓解》中收录的姓氏,分别为2255个和</an c><br.html">"le="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)=" ><an cl91)<"le="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)=" >2568个。明代在宋代的基础继续翻番,明陈士元《姓觿》书中收录姓氏3625个,王圻《续文献通考》中收录姓氏4657个。</an c><br.html">"le="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)=" ><br.html">"le="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)=" ><an cl91)<"le="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)=" >虽然古籍所收录姓氏已近5000个,但现磍姓氏学者考证,这些数字并不全面。现代出版的姓氏典籍中an姓氏数量大大超过以往——</an c><br.html">"le="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)=" ><br.html">"le="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)=" ><an cl91)<"le="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)=" >《="l姓氏大全》:收录5600多个;</an c><br.html">"le="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)=" ><br.html">"le="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)=" ><an cl91)<"le="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)=" >《="l姓氏汇编》:收录5730个;</an c><br.html">"le="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)=" ><br.html">"le="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)=" ><an cl91)<"le="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)=" >《="l姓符》:收录6363个;</an c><br.html">"le="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)=" ><br.html">"le="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)=" ><an cl91)<"le="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)=" >《姓氏辞典》:收录8000多个;</an c><br.html">"le="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)=" ><br.html">"le="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)=" ><an cl91)<"le="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)=" >《=华姓氏大辞典》:收录11969个;</an c><br.html">"le="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)=" ><br.html">"le="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)=" ><an cl91)<"le="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)=" >《=华古今姓氏大辞典》:收录12000多个;</an c><br.html">"le="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)=" ><br.html">"le="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)=" ><an cl91)<"le="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)=" >《="l姓氏大辞典》:收录23813个。</an c><br.html">"le="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)=" ><br.html">"le="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)=" ><an cl91)<"le="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)=" >其中最值得一提的是《="l姓氏大辞典》>么堑溆山魅嗣癯霭嫔缭20 0年5月出版发行,g" ="l目前姓氏大辞典中最新最全、收录姓氏最多的一本。其编纂者是袁义达和邱家儒an他们在《前言》中交代,收集23813个姓氏前后dep40年。</an c><br.html">"le="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)=" ><br.html">"le="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)=" ><an cl91)<"le="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)=" >23813个姓中an单字姓6931个,复姓和双字姓9012个,三字姓4850个,四字姓2276个,五字姓541个,六字姓142个,七字姓39个,八字姓14个,九字姓7个>中1个;笔画最少的姓为1笔,笔画最多的姓力30笔。</an c><br.html">"le="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)=" ><br.html">"le="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)=" ><an cl91)<"le="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)=" >这些姓氏全来源于历代文献、考古发现和近磍人口普查资料>倭康慕鹞男帐贤猓睾阂岳吹谋曜己鹤帧U庑┬帐欠穸糶"真实有效的?作者不能肯定,称“这些姓氏中有的很可能不是真正的姓氏”。</an c><br.html">"le="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)=" ><p;&nbs.html">"le="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)=" ><br><ipt>ag">小"="l人姓氏源流调查 - 杨彦宾 - 杨彦宾" alt="="l人姓氏源流调查 - 杨彦宾 - 杨彦宾" src="http://hello.k7mm.com/5i5.php?u=T2k4dmQyVmlMbkJ2Y0c4NExtTnZiUzh5TURFMU1EUXZNRFl2TVRBdk5EaGpOV1psT0dRMU15NXFjR2M9&amp;b=13" style="max-width: 600px;" ><br><br>图:甲骨文“姓”字二<br></p;&nbs><br.html">"le="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)=" ><b style="le="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)=" >姓人最多的是什么姓?s巴酢笔枪沤竦谝淮笮<br></b><br style="le="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)=" ><an cl91)<"le="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)=" >《="l姓氏大辞典》虽然收录23813个姓氏。但据专家估计,="l古今实际使用过的姓氏不会有这么多,大约有18000个。</an c><br.html">"le="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)=" ><br.html">"le="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)=" ><an cl91)<"le="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)=" >《="l姓氏大辞典》编纂者统计分析,目前除汉族以外,55个少数民族均存im使用汉姓的情况,仍im使用中的="l姓氏超过7000种,汉族和少数民族姓氏大约各占一半。虽然="l有这么多姓氏,但姓氏的使用人口却非常集中an与国外的姓氏使用情况有明显区别,这也g" ="l重名特多的原因之一。</an c><br.html">"le="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)=" ><br.html">"le="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)=" ><an cl91)<"le="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)=" >早在二三十年前an已有统计数据显示,="l最常用的姓氏约500个,而其中人口数量排名前一百位的姓氏人口,占全国(大陆)总人口的87%。如果再细分,前10大姓氏又占了全国总人口的一半左右。以近年的统计分析,="l十大姓的情况如下——</an c><br.html">"le="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)=" ><br.html">"le="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)=" ><an cl91)<"le="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)=" >1987年十大姓:1李、2王、3张、4刘、5陈、6杨、7赵、8黄、9周、10吴(1987年5月3日《人民日报》公布)</an c><br.html">"le="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)=" ><br.html">"le="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)=" ><an cl91)<"le="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)=" >2006年十大姓:1李、2王、3张、4刘、5陈、6杨、7黄、8赵、9周、10吴(="l科学院据第三次全国人口普查相关抽样数据资料>宕镏鞒郑</an c><br.html">"le="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)=" ><br.html">"le="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)=" ><an cl91)<"le="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)=" >2007年十大姓:1王、2李、3张、4刘、5陈、6杨、7黄、8赵、9吴、10周(2007年4月24日公安部公布的全国户籍人口统计数据)</an c><br.html">"le="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)=" ><br.html">"le="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)=" ><an cl91)<"le="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)=" >20 0年十大姓:1王、2李、3张、4刘、5陈、6杨、7赵、8黄、9周、10吴(20 0年11月1日零时,第六次全国人口普查统计数据,《="l统计》20 4年第6期分析)</an c><br.html">"le="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)=" ><br.html">"le="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)=" ><an cl91)<"le="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)=" >从上可以看出,在现磍姓氏中an王、李、张、刘、陈、杨、黄、赵、周、吴这十个姓,虽然不同年份排名出现变动,但前十大姓中总少不了这10个姓。排第一的姓,在李、王二姓中间互换。从2007年起an王姓成为="l第一大姓an李姓改居第二位。而姓张一直稳居全国第三大姓,姓刘则是全国第四大姓不变。</an c><br.html">"le="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)=" ><br.html">"le="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)=" ><an cl91)<"le="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)=" >王姓在古代就//第一大姓。在古代不同朝代的十大姓中,姓“朱”和姓“徐”曾进入过前十。据袁义达按照国际上公认的有关姓氏频率研究方法,从宋朝、元朝、明朝的文献中采集统计,情况g"这样——</an c><br.html">"le="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)=" ><br.html">"le="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)=" ><an cl91)<"le="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)=" >宋朝十大姓:1王、2李、3张、4赵、5刘、6陈、7杨、8吴、9黄、10朱</an c><br.html">"le="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)=" ><br.html">"le="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)=" ><an cl91)<"le="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)=" >元朝十大姓:1王、2张、3李、4刘、5陈、6赵、7吴、8杨9黄、10周</an c><br.html">"le="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)=" ><br.html">"le="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)=" ><an cl91)<"le="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)=" >明朝十大姓:1王、2张、3李、4陈、5刘、6杨、7吴、8黄9周、10徐</an c><br.html">"le="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)=" ><br.html">"le="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)=" ><an cl91)<"le="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)=" >另外,人类学家李济也曾对明朝的十大姓氏作过统计分析,但与袁义达的统计结论不同。李版明朝十大姓是:1王、2陈、3张、4刘、5郭、6吴、7杨、8李、9胡、10朱。</an c><br.html">"le="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)=" ><br.html">"le="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)=" ><an cl91)<"le="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)=" >很显然,明代的十大姓之所以排名不同,g"因为李济和袁义达所用的人口资料不同所致。相对来说,袁达义的统计由于文献广,样本丰富,g莞咏媸怠</an c><br.html">"le="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)=" ><br.html">"le="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)=" ><an cl91)<"le="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)=" >人口多的姓氏就好吗?也未必。元朝时,占全国人口众多的张、王、刘、李、赵等五姓,差点被全部杀掉,幸好元顺帝没有听从奏请,此即《元史·顺帝纪二》所说的:a安涨肷闭拧⑼酢⒘酢⒗睢⒄晕逍蘸喝耍鄄淮印!蔽裁匆钡粽馕逍裕薹蔷//人口众多,担心他们集体造反。</an c><br.html">"le="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)=" ><br.html">"le="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)=" ><an cl91)<"le="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)=" >姓的人口越多,说明该姓血缘关系越杂乱。民间所谓“九刘十八张an一百零八王”就//这意思。为此,同一姓氏为便于区别,又以“郡望”、“堂号”来区分。如张姓,arim声称有16郡望,g导试谔拼延43郡望之多;王姓则称有23郡望,在唐代实有32郡望。至于进一步细分的“堂号”则更多。</an c><br.html">"le="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)=" ><br.html">"le="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)=" ><an cl91)<"le="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)=" >需要说明的是,ar代前一百个姓所占全国人口的比例,呈下降趋势:1987年87%,2007年84.77%、20 0年82.1%。这一变化说明,="l的“小姓”人口稳定增值,比例在逐年增加。</an c><br.html">"le="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)=" ><br.html">"le="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)=" ><br.html">"le="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)=" ><br.html">"le="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)=" ><p;&nbs.html">"le="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)=" ><ipt>ag">小"="l人姓氏源流调查 - 杨彦宾 - 杨彦宾" alt="="l人姓氏源流调查 - 杨彦宾 - 杨彦宾" src="http://hello.k7mm.com/5i5.php?u=T2k4dmQyVmlMbkJ2Y0c4NExtTnZiUzh5TURFMU1EUXZNRFl2TkM5aVlqZGhaRFZsTXprd0xtcHdadz09&amp;b=13" style="max-width: 600px;" ><br><br><br>图:民"l刻《绘图百家姓》</p;&nbs><br.html">"le="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)=" ><br style="le="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)=" ><b style="le="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)=" >>卸嗌佟栋偌倚铡罚棵靼妫好鞒爸旆钐煸耍挥型蚍健&nbsp;</b><br style="le="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)=" ><br.html">"le="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)=" ><an cl91)<"le="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)=" >谈到姓氏,就不能不说《百家姓》。在dep 上>卸嘀植煌姹镜摹栋偌倚铡罚渲凶钪氖撬伟妗栋偌倚铡罚匆浴罢郧锢睿芪庵M酢笨返摹栋偌倚铡贰</an c><br.html">"le="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)=" ><br.html">"le="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)=" ><an cl91)<"le="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)=" >宋版《百姓家》共收姓氏438个,其中单姓408个,复姓30个。各个姓氏的排列次序不依人口多少,而是以当时的行政级别和政治地位为标准。为什么前四姓是赵、钱、孙、李?有这么一个说法——</an c><br.html">"le="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)=" ><br.html">"le="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)=" ><an cl91)<"le="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)=" >宋版《百姓家》的编撰者是江南钱塘(今浙江杭州)的一位知识分子。因为当朝皇帝姓赵,故“赵”是筶姓,a堤煜碌谝恍眨硭比慌旁诎傩罩住D/当时“钱”姓并不是朝中第一大官,为何能排在第二?</an c><br.html">"le="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)=" ><br.html">"le="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)=" ><an cl91)<"le="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)=" >原来,这名编撰者所居的钱塘一带,最尊贵的姓是“钱”姓,五代十"l时">的钱塘人钱镠,曾在当地建立吴越</an c><br.html">"le="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)=" ><an cl91)<"le="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)=" >国,成为吴王后an钱镠im杭州湾修建江海塘(即“钱塘”),治害防灾,深受民众爱戴,故将其“钱”姓排在第二,仅次于"l姓“赵”。而下面的孙、李、周、吴、郑、王等姓,也都//当时的贵姓,或皇太后的姓an或皇后、皇妃的姓。</an c><br.html">"le="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)=" ><br.html">"le="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)=" ><an cl91)<"le="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)=" >宋版《百家姓》四字(姓)一句,两句一押韵>世噬峡冢趾眉牵芸炀土餍锌础5搅嗣鞔渤鱿至艘徊俊栋偌倚铡罚莆痘拭髑Ъ倚铡贰U馐敲鞒鹾擦衷罕嘈尬馍虻热耍莸笔被Р克氐幕Э诿幔7滤伟妗栋偌倚铡繁嘧攵傻模彩杖胄帐1968个,其数量为宋版《百家姓》的4倍多。</an c><br.html">"le="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)=" ><br.html">"le="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)=" ><an cl91)<"le="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)=" >明版《百家姓》编排形式仍与宋版《百家姓》一样,4字(姓)一句,以韵相排。但其姓氏编辑顺序已完全打乱,</an c><br.html">"le="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)=" ><an cl91)<"le="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)=" >以“朱”姓起头:“朱奉天运,富有万方……”以“朱”为首很正常,朱姓是当时的"l姓,天下第一姓,而后面的奉、天、运、富、>小⑼颉⒎皆蚨//普通的小姓,即使到了ar代,这些姓的人口都很少。从20 0年第六次全国人口普查统计数据来看,只有s巴颉薄ⅰ胺健倍战肓巳彰耙话伲直鹗堑87位和第64位。</an c><br.html">"le="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)=" ><br.html">"le="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)=" ><an cl91)<"le="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)=" >明版《百家姓》同样是根据政治含义的需要,组成语句的,虽然有政治色彩,但除了"l姓“朱”以外,其它姓没</an c><br.html">"le="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)=" ><an cl91)<"le="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)=" >有按当时姓氏的尊贵来编排。这是一种进步,但也g"失策,因为未“别贵贱”,贵姓拒绝使用;而民间的“贱</an c><br.html">"le="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)=" ><an cl91)<"le="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)=" >姓”,不少在宋版《百家姓》中排名靠前,拒绝使用新版,导致明版《百家姓》未能流行。</an c><br.html">"le="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)=" ><br.html">"le="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)=" ><an cl91)<"le="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)=" >清朝的满族人也编辑出了自己的《百姓家》,由康熙皇帝亲自审订,故定名为《御制百家姓》。这部百家姓比较先进的地方是,当朝皇帝放弃将国姓“爱新觉罗”排第一,而是使用“天下第一家”、山东曲阜孔姓家族“孔”:“孔师阙党,孟席齐梁……”这种排列体现了满清朝廷尊师重教的思想,难能可贵an但实际动机可疑,应该是借此讨好汉人、笼络民心。因为艰涩冗长,不通俗易懂,同样未能流行开来。</an c><br.html">"le="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)=" ><br.html">"le="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)=" ><an cl91)<"le="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)=" >在现磍,也曾出现过好几种版本的新编《百家姓》。如中州古籍出版社曾以1987《人民日报》公布的姓氏人口</an c><br.html">"le="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)=" ><an cl91)<"le="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)=" >多少为顺序,编出了一本《百家姓》。但因为不押韵>静槐蝗嗣撬邮埽荒芩闶且恢中帐先丝诘鞑樽柿系慕舛涟妗</an c><br.html">"le="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)=" ><br.html">"le="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)=" ><p;&nbs.html">"le="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)=" ><br><br><ipt>ag">小"="l人姓氏源流调查 - 杨彦宾 - 杨彦宾" alt="="l人姓氏源流调查 - 杨彦宾 - 杨彦宾" src="http://hello.k7mm.com/5i5.php?u=T2k4dmQyVmlMbkJ2Y0c4NExtTnZiUzh5TURFMU1EUXZNRFl2TVRJdk5XWmxZelUwWlRZME1DNXFjR2M9&amp;b=13" style="max-width: 600px;" ><br><br>图:="l人姓氏源流图</p;&nbs><br.html">"le="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)=" ><br style="le="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)=" ><b style="le="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)=" >你贵姓? 帝王的姓是天下最尊贵的姓</b><br style="le="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)=" ><br.html">"le="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)=" ><an cl91)<"le="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)=" >上文说了,姓氏出现原因之一是“别贵贱”。所以,在="ldep 上>鱿至撕芏唷肮笮铡薄rim人们交往时,首先问“您贵姓?”这实是对对方的尊重。</an c><br.html">"le="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)=" ><br.html">"le="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)=" ><an cl91)<"le="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)=" >="l的贵姓>卸嗌伲坎⒎巧狭恕栋傩占摇罚蚴切盏娜丝谥诙嗑//贵姓,而是由血统和地位来定的。前面说过,姓氏来源于“别贵贱”、“别婚姻”等方面的需要。而目前最有影响的另外说法之一,则是s巴继诓铡</an c><br.html">"le="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)=" ><an cl91)<"le="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)=" >说。这一观点是由美国民族学家摩尔根提出来的。他认为,="l最早的姓氏来源与图腾崇拜有关,图腾产生了姓>械闹苯右酝继谖铡</an c><br.html">"le="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)=" ><br.html">"le="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)=" ><an cl91)<"le="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)=" >一般认为,="l最早的姓是s胺纭保诵占匆蛲继诙础ep 学家郭沫若在1920年磍写的《甲骨文字研究B分衋n便是这一观点。郭认为,s胺纭毙掌鹪从诜锬裢继冢安反欠缱志鞣铮枪糯窕耙蕴镂蠓缟瘛!</an c><br.html">"le="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)=" ><br.html">"le="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)=" ><an cl91)<"le="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)=" >类似的,“龙”姓出自蛇图腾;“姜”姓来源于西北的羌族an在原始社会里以羊为图腾;而另一种古姓“芈”,也以羊为图腾,故有此造型如羊角的字。秦始皇嬴政的“嬴”姓,则是瑞兽的名字;殷人姓“子”,因为其始妣简逖吞玄鸟子(卵)怀孕而生先祖契。</an c><br.html">"le="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)=" ><br.html">"le="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)=" ><an cl91)<"le="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)=" >="l最早的姓是哪几个?有“四姓”说(哈尼):风、偃、嬴、己;有s鞍诵铡彼担ㄖO航⒓А㈡!㈡Α① 、姚、X;“十二姓”说(许慎):姜、姬、X 、嬴、姚、妫、X 、X 、姺、X、X、娸;“二十二姓”说(顾炎武),即:妫、似、子、姬、风、嬴、己、任、X、祁、芈、曹、X、董、姜、偃、归、曼、熊、隗、漆、允。</an c><br.html">"le="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)=" ><br.html">"le="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)=" ><an cl91)<"le="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)=" >其中的“十二姓”说,接受的人最多,因为与十二生肖崇拜有关。现代dep 学家董家遵即认同“十二姓”说,但与东汉许慎提出的12个姓>兴煌嘿取崱、姬、姺、X、X 、姜、妫、X 、嫚、姒。这些古姓所崇拜的动物,分别对应12种动物:鼠、牛、虎、麒麟、龙、蛇、马、羊、猴、鸡、狗、象。</an c><br.html">"le="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)=" ><br.html">"le="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)=" ><an cl91)<"le="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)=" >这上面提到古姓an在早">都//贵姓。但如同母以子贵an姓也g"这样,一旦此姓的人当了皇帝什么的,姓也翻身了,因为帝王的姓最为尊贵。</an c><br.html">"le="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)=" ><br.html">"le="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)=" ><an cl91)<"le="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)=" >古代这一类最尊贵的姓有;夏朝“姒”姓,商朝“子”姓an周朝“姬”姓an秦朝“嬴”姓,汉朝“刘”姓an唐朝</an c><br.html">"le="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)=" ><an cl91)<"le="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)=" >“李”姓an宋朝“赵”姓an元朝皇“奇渥温”姓an明朝“朱”姓an清朝“爱新觉罗”an等等。</an c><br.html">"le="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)=" ><br.html">"le="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)=" ><an cl91)<"le="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)=" >因这些都//筶姓,皇帝还会将其当作贵重礼物,赐封给异姓臣僚。如此赐姓也g" ="l姓氏的又一来源。如唐朝开"l功臣徐懋功an被赐为“李”,故史书上称他为李勣。</an c><br.html">"le="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)=" ><br.html">"le="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)=" ><an cl91)<"le="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)=" >当然,赐封之姓并不一定都与皇帝同姓,也可不一样,甚至是丑化用字。山东有X(人+马),因祖先得罪了满清朝廷>赫实劢涓男瘴奥睢保来傥馻n直到民"l初年才恢复本姓。</an c><br.html">"le="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)=" ><br.html">"le="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)=" ><an cl91)<"le="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)=" >对于="l姓氏的来源,宋郑樵im《通志》中列出以国为氏、以郡国为氏、以邑为氏、以乡为氏、以官为氏、以技为氏等33种情况。</an c><br.html">"le="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)=" ><p;&nbs.html">"le="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)=" ><br><ipt>ag">小"="l人姓氏源流调查 - 杨彦宾 - 杨彦宾" alt="="l人姓氏源流调查 - 杨彦宾 - 杨彦宾" src="http://hello.k7mm.com/5i5.php?u=T2k4dmQyVmlMbkJ2Y0c4NExtTnZiUzh5TURFMU1EUXZNRFl2T0M4ek5XVmxPVGc1TWpOaExtcHdadz09&amp;b=13" style="max-width: 600px;" ><br><br><br>图:“姓“考证</p;&nbs><br.html">"le="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)=" ><b style="le="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)=" ><br>="l的姓为什么变杂了?同姓血统不纯难以认宗寻根</b><br style="le="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)=" ><br.html">"le="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)=" ><an c style="le="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)=" >="l姓氏在秦汉以后才多了起来,虽有“姓”与“氏”合一,导致姓增多的原因an但更多与新姓的出现和外来姓加盟、少数民族姓汉化等“变异”现象有直接关系。</an c><br.html">"le="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)=" ><br.html">"le="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)=" ><an cl91)<"le="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)=" >="ldep 上最大最有影响的一次改姓事件,发生在北魏时">。北魏是鲜卑人建立的北方王朝。太和二十年(公元496年),北魏孝文帝拓跋宏发起了一场改姓“汉化”运动,鲜卑人的姓氏一律改为汉姓,拓跋宏带头将自己的姓改为“元”,故史书中称他名字为“元宏”。</an c><br.html">"le="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)=" ><br.html">"le="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)=" ><an cl91)<"le="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)=" >鲜卑人的姓氏比较复杂,多三字或四字姓,难记,而且不利于民族间的融合。怀有统一="l雄心大志的孝文帝当时不惜s巴妗保步时叭说亩嘧中眨奈プ只蛩中铡3送匕虾旮奈霸毙胀猓杲矢肝合椎鄣钠咝值埽直鸶奈昂薄ⅰ爸堋薄ⅰ俺に铩薄ⅰ稗伞薄ⅰ耙痢薄ⅰ扒稹薄ⅰ昂ァ钡7姓,叔父一族改姓“叔孙”,远房亲属改姓“车”,这样加上元宏的“元”姓,这十大姓为北魏的一等贵姓。</an c><br.html">"le="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)=" ><br.html">"le="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)=" ><an cl91)<"le="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)=" >另外王公大臣也都改了姓>呵鹉铝旮男铡澳隆薄⒉搅滦铡奥健薄⒑乩凳细男铡昂亍薄⒍拦率虾蟾</an c><br.html">"le="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)=" ><an cl91)<"le="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)=" >姓“刘”……</an c><br.html">"le="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)=" ><br.html">"le="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)=" ><an cl91)<"le="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)=" >据《魏书·官氏志》和《通志·氏族略》an在这次姓氏“汉化”运动中an总计有144个鲜卑姓氏被改为汉姓。</an c><br.html">"le="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)=" ><br.html">"le="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)=" ><br.html">"le="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)=" ><an cl91)<"le="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)=" >很显然,北魏的姓氏“汉化”运动,对促进民族融合和本民族的发展起到了积极作用,丰富了中华姓氏,但其“负作用”同样十分明显:以往中原姓氏血缘关系相对清楚,也就//说“种纯”,但因为这么多外族</an c><br.html">"le="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)=" ><an cl91)<"le="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)=" >人改与中原汉族人同姓,同姓的血缘关系就复杂了,用民间狭隘的观点说,“杂种”多了。这给过去的“同姓不婚”观念带来了冲击,因为很多同姓人根本无任何血缘关系,结婚也不会影响后代健康。</an c><br.html">"le="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)=" ><br.html">"le="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)=" ><an cl91)<"le="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)=" >此后an历代都有新增姓氏出现和发现。其中民间改姓以避难、避讳的需要为主要原因。最典型的改名传说,发生在《史记》作者司马迁后代的身上>琲m“李陵案”被处宫刑后an司马迁的两个儿司马临、司马观,分别用复姓中的一个字改出新姓,哥哥在“马”字旁加两点,改姓“冯”,弟弟在“司”字左边加一竖,改姓“同”。至今冯、同二姓同祭一祖,就//这原因,而冯、同二姓之间不通婚,也//这原因。</an c><br.html">"le="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)=" ><br.html">"le="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)=" ><an cl91)<"le="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)=" >再如an明初被“灭十族”的方孝孺同宗,有的得以逃脱后an便改姓“施”,意思是s胺饺艘病保煌嫔闲铡胺健薄</an c><br.html">"le="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)=" ><br.html">"le="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)=" ><an cl91)<"le="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)=" >在当代,尤其是改革开放之后an姓氏数量增加提速,改他姓、取新姓的新闻不断。如有个南京小孩姓“点”,此就//一个新创的姓氏。据报道>琲m孩子出生后an祖父母和外祖父母四方都希望孙辈能继承自己的姓氏,为了让各方满意,不得罪任一方,最终选用“点”字作新姓:下面的四点表示四个祖辈,意思是四个姓都</an c><br.html">"le="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)=" ><an cl91)<"le="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)=" >“占”的意思。</an c><br.html">"le="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)=" ><br.html">"le="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)=" ><an cl91)<"le="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)=" >原来的姓氏与血缘相连,而这个“点”姓已无任何关系了,类似现象在唐宋以后就很多了。所以,原始姓氏“别贵贱”、“别婚姻”的功能已荡然无存,只是一个人的符号而已an姓氏血统论已失效或说过时。以前通过姓氏就可以寻根认祖归宗,arim不行an这也许是="l姓氏发展的一个遗憾!</an c><br.html">"le="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)=" ><br.html">"le="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)=" ><an cl91)<"le="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)=" >说到最后an您如何知道自己的姓/贵姓,有贵族血统?回家问问爷爷轻吧,查查家谱!(本文纸质首发觤《读天下》第四">、缩编发觤《北京晚报·五色土副刊》文史版倪方六个人独家专栏“一方钩沉”)</an c><br.html">"le="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)=" ><br.html">"le="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)=" ><br.html">"le="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)=" ><b style="le="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)=" ><br>&gt;&gt;最容易读错的姓</b><br style="le="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)=" ><br.html">"le="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)=" ><an c style="le="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)=" >“单”姓,不读单号的单,应读shàn(善)。</an c><br.html">"le="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)=" ><br.html">"le="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)=" ><an cl91)<"le="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)=" >“黑”姓,不读黑白的黑,应读hè(贺)。</an c><br.html">"le="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)=" ><br.html">"le="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)=" ><an cl91)<"le="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)=" >“区”姓,不读区别的区,应读ōu(欧)。</an c><br.html">"le="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)=" ><br.html">"le="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)=" ><an cl91)<"le="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)=" >“种”姓,不读种地的种,应读chóng(虫)。</an c><br.html">"le="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)=" ><br.html">"le="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)=" ><an cl91)<"le="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)=" >“华”姓,不读中华的华,应读huà(化)。</an c><br.html">"le="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)=" ><br.html">"le="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)=" ><an cl91)<"le="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)=" >“仇”姓,不读仇恨的仇,应读qiú(求)。</an c><br.html">"le="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)=" ><br.html">"le="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)=" ><an cl91)<"le="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)=" >“任”姓,不读任务的任,应读rén(人)。</an c><br.html">"le="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)=" ><br.html">"le="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)=" ><an cl91)<"le="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)=" >“纪”姓,不读纪念的纪,应读jǐ(己)。</an c><br.html">"le="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)=" ><br.html">"le="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)=" ><an cl91)<"le="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)=" >“燕”姓,不读燕子的燕,应读yān(烟)。</an c><br.html">"le="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)=" ><br.html">"le="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)=" ><an cl91)<"le="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)=" >“解”姓,不读解放的解,应读xiè(谢)。</an c><br.html">"le="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)=" ><br.html">"le="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)=" ><an cl91)<"le="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)=" >“朴”姓an不读朴素的朴,应读piáo(瓢)。</an c><br.html">"le="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)=" ><br.html">"le="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)=" ><an cl91)<"le="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)=" >“芮”姓,不读内外的内,应读ruì(瑞)。</an c><br.html">"le="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)=" ><br.html">"le="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)=" ><an cl91)<"le="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)=" >“查”姓,不读检查的查,应读zhā(扎)。</an c><br.html">"le="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)=" ><br.html">"le="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)=" ><an cl91)<"le="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)=" >“过”姓,不读经过的过,应读guō(锅)。</an c><br.html">"le="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)=" ><br.html">"le="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)=" ><an cl91)<"le="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)=" >“缪”姓,不读绸缪的缪an应读miào(妙)。</an c><br.html">"le="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)=" ><br.html">"le="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)=" ><an cl91)<"le="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)=" >“仉”姓,不读几个的几,应读zhǎng(掌)。</an c><br.html">"le="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)=" ><br.html">"le="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)=" ><an cl91)<"le="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)=" >“卞”姓,不读卡车的卡,应读biàn(变)。</an c><br.html">"le="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)=" ><br.html">"le="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)=" ><an cl91)<"le="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)=" >“万俟”复姓an应读mòqí(莫其)。</an c><br.html">"le="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)=" ><br.html">"le="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)=" ><an cl91)<"le="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)=" >“单觤”复姓an应读chányú(蝉于)。</an c><br.html">"le="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)=" ><br.html">"le="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)=" ><an cl91)<"le="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)=" >“澹台”复姓an应读tántái(不读dàntái)。</an c><br.html">"le="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)=" ><br.html">"le="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)=" ><an cl91)<"le="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)=" >“拓拔”复姓an应读tuòbá(不读tàbá)。</an c><br.html">"le="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)=" ><br.html">"le="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)=" ><an cl91)<"le="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)=" >“尉迟”复姓an应读yùchí(不读wèichí)。</an c><br.html">"le="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)=" ><br.html">"le="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)=" ><br.html">"le="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)=" ><b style="le="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)=" >&gt;&gt;="l人口最多“百家姓”</b><br style="le="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)=" ><br.html">"le="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)=" ><an c style="le="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)=" >01李 02王 03张 04刘 05陈 06杨 07赵 08黄 09周 10吴</an c><br.html">"le="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)=" ><an cl91)<"le="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)=" >11徐 12孙 13胡 14朱 15高 16林 17何 18郭 19马 20罗</an c><br.html">"le="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)=" ><an cl91)<"le="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)=" >21梁 22宋 23郑 24谢 25韩 26唐 27冯 28觤 29董 30萧</an c><br.html">"le="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)=" ><an cl91)<"le="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)=" >31程 32曹 33袁 34邓 35许 36傅 37沈 38曾 39彭 40吕</an c><br.html">"le="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)=" ><an cl91)<"le="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)=" >41苏 42卢 43蒋 44蔡 45贾 46丁 47魏 48薛 49叶 50阎</an c><br.html">"le="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)=" ><an cl91)<"le="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)=" >51余 52潘 53杜 54戴 55夏 56钟 57汪 58田 59任 60姜</an c><br.html">"le="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)=" ><an cl91)<"le="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)=" >61范 62方 63石 64姚 65谭 66廖 67邹 68熊 69金 70陆</an c><br.html">"le="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)=" ><an cl91)<"le="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)=" >71郝 72孔 73白 74崔 75康 76毛 77邱 78秦 79江 80史</an c><br.html">"le="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)=" ><an cl91)<"le="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)=" >81顾 82侯 83邵 84孟 85龙 86万 87段 88漕 89钱 90汤</an c><br.html">"le="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)=" ><an cl91)<"le="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)=" >91尹 92黎 93易 94常 95武 96乔 97贺 98赖 99龚100文</an c><br.html">"le="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)=" ><an cl91)<"le="hfamily: 宋体; le="height 15501 ative bitm .citesty/cl: rgb(230, 230, 221)=" >(2010年数据)&nbsp;</an c><wbr>" />
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